ROCCA (of)CILENTO the CAPITAL of the BARONY Cilentus, Cilento, Autonomous University even after including In the fortified walls of the castle of the Sanseverino, whereby the name «J. BUFFLE FORTRESS», today's Rocca Cilento By Lustra which is 1.5 Km. From Salerno Km 69.

Convento di San Francesco - Coro del XVI sec.

As I have shown elsewhere, and I confirm even here with documents in the meanwhile available, it is certain that Cilento, not it is located on top of the Stella Mountain, it was a village itself, County of the Longobards, which due to its geographical position of important road node and for the activity of its inhabitants had managed to polarize, in his, all economic and political activities of the neighbours villages.

The first news of the toponym is in 963, whose followed the fundamental diploma of the donation of the principles John and Guaimar of 994. But the document which informs about the inclusion of the village of Cilento in the fortified castle walls of Sanseverino, «Rocca », is dated to1119. That is when the great Abbot Peter and his coadjutor David, with skillful political act, invested across the property owned by the Abbey in the tenement of the village Gualtiero, said Vulture, «qui in castello de cilento quod rocca dicitur, magister preest » namely Governor «de la Rocca » of Sanseverino.

The fief of Cilento gradually expanded to include many villages constituting a vast Barony that bordered the County the Principality and with the baronies of Agropoli and ecclesiastical at Castellabate. We have no news about the assignment of the fief of Cilento, whether it had been conquered by Troiso the Norman of Rota, and confirmed by his son Duke Robert Ruggiero of Sanseverino or assigned directly to Ruggiero married Sica (died 1121), daughter of count Pandulf of Capaccio to Ruggiero and Troiso junior.

What is certain is that in 1094 was already Lord of Cilento Ruggiero. Of extension of Barony is learned only by the process of restores ordered by King Charles I in 1276 in favour of the Abbey. Villages of many within the ancient Lombard District (actus) of Cilento, county seat of brother of Prince Gisulf II, Guaimar. Both Ruggiero and his brother Troiso, Lord of Montemiletto donated property to the Abbey of Cava. But Ruggiero, after a period of persecution of vassals and goods of the Abbey, it seems that he was reconciled with the Benedictines after asking forgiveness to the great Abbot Pietro, up to dress up even the monastic habit. In 1125 is news of son Henry and his disputes with the eldest brother Roberto (became ancestor of the Sanseverino di Caserta), first designated heir by his father and then replaced with the second son Henry married good Fenizia.

Henry favoured the Abbey sending to assist to the judgement in litigation Abbey-assignees of Persiceto, Guglielmo of Montoro and count of Barony Pietro di Copersito. He was succeeded as Regent, the widow Fenizia. She appointed General Administrator of the goods Sergio Secia. Now to age his son Guglielmo assumed all powers of «signoria». He participated in the conspiracy against Grand Admiral Maione (he was killed by Matthew Borrello from Salerno the November 10, 1160) and fled about the forces of William the bad, decided to punish the conspirators. Sanseverino Castle was defended by William's sister, Maddy, then taken and imprisoned with the mother Finizia in Palermo, is reminiscent of the Farcando, where they were made starve.The confiscated goods were assigned, in defiance to the Sanseverino of Caserta who had always aspired.

After the death of King Guglielmo (May 7, 1166), Queen Margaret of Navarre conceded an amnesty reintegrating into their fiefs ancient possessors. The Sanseverino of Caserta filed for courts, for the final assignment of the feuds of Sanseverino and Cilento. In the judgement, celebrated in the presence the young King William, later William the good, listened to the conten teeth and their representatives, the Grand Chancellor of the realm decided to for this married William Sanseverino (circa 1162) IsaBella di Marsico, daughter of count Silvestro. From the cited document of 1183 you can learns about public offices (Justiciar and Chao) covered, for the confidence of the King, by William also count of Capaccio.William Sanseverino donated many goods and others recognized in properties to Abbey of Cava (aa. 1183-1182), with whom he called even (a. 1187) the boundaries of the two baronies, document signed in addition to by his wife Isabella, even by his eldest son James. Substitute in fiefs, for William's death, James, for not providing Frederick II the strong armed required for war against the Saracens of Sicily, he was imprisoned by the emperor who claimed (a. 1223) goods tax.

Fiefs then returned (a. 1229) to TomMaso substitute in the Lords on the death without heir of his brother.Thomas had married Perna of Morra, by whom he had William and Ruggiero who married the Sisters of St. Thomas de Aquino, Mary and Theodora. Thomas asked the emperor to exchange the Lordships of Sanseverino and Cilento, with the County of Marsico of Grandpa, already assigned to Filippo Guarna of Salerno after death William's childless brother of Isabela of Marsico, and withfollowing the consumer tax back. To adjustment (prior to 1229), Thomas paid alia Crown thousand ounces of gold.The barony of the Cilento was granted by Emperor prior to John of Villano, then to count John Paul in Rome and then to Guido of Pozzuoli.

The barony was then returned to the Sanseverino, but because Thomas with his son William took part in the convows to Capaccio (they fortified themselves in the castle of Sala) forebear had to the IRS their goods and then killed (b. 1246).As is known, to Frederick II followed, as Vicar in Sicily and inItaly, the bastard son Manfred, who appointed his maternal uncle, Grand Marshal of Sicily Galvano Lancia, count of Sanseverino and Baron of Cilento and later Governor of Salerno and the Principality. After the entry of Pope Innocent IV in Naples (October 27, 1254), Pope also gave the barony of the Cilento to Ruggiero di Sanseverino, he raised after it had escaped miraculously (had nine years) to massacre of Capaccio.

By Diurnali by Matteo da Garcia we learn of the marriage of the grandson of Ruggiero Pope Innocenzo IV, daughter of Obizzo Fieschi. News explained, only with a first marriage without offspring. What is certain is that married Theodora Ruggìero, daughter of Landulf Aquinas. The vicar Manfredi, then crowned in Palermo, shooting the fight claimed assets of Ruggiero by assigning the fief of Sanseverino to count Jordan of Anglano joint, appointed vicar in Tuscany and then lord of Siena.As a result of agreements between the French Pope Urban IV and its successor Clement IV with Charles of Anjou and the descent of this Italy (d. 1265), after the battle of Benevento (February 26, 1266) and after the contribution payable by the lame of the Principality of Salerno, Ruggiero was reinstated in the Lordships of Marsico, Sanseverino and Cilento (d. 1276) and Athena (Lucan), Sala (Consilina) and Diano. Captain King's soldiers in Puglia (1267-1268), Roger was then vicar at Rome. When the King had the the Kingdom of Jerusalem from Mary of Antioch, and was crowned by Pope (1277), enter Ruggiero to possess it.

Remained there as Viceroy until October 14, 1282, when he was recalled for lead the position of Captain General of the Principality and of Basilicata. Created the well-known line of Defense Policastro-Basilicata, died in 1285 when the Aragonese forces had pushed towards Policastro, Camerota and Padula. His son Thomas was appointed commander of all forces in the Salerno coastal- Policastro and guardian of the city of Salerno. The August 22, 1284 was nominated Captain General in war for land of Calabria, then substituted for the 2 September infirmity. Appointed again (20 August 1289) captain at war for the Principality and the Basilicata by Charles II retook Policastro and Camerota provided to reinforce the Capaccio and garrison the fortress of Cilento and the castle of Roccagloriosa, where he oversaw the transition to land.

Place its headquarters in Agropoli was assisted by his wife, Margaret of Valdemonte, not only to restore the fortifications of Agropoli, but for the defense of the castle of Sanseverino of Camerota (later of Centola) following death of feudal Lord Peter de Fussano. In 1298 he began the siege of Castellabate that at the end of the 1299 capitulated.With the lordship of Cilento, Tommaso di Sanseverino had the fiefs of Athena, Castelluccio, Corbella, Diano, Fasanella, Magliano vetere, Monteforte, Pantuliano, Sala, S. SeveRino di Camerota, Sanza. Obtained the fief of Padula founded there in 1305 the famous Carthusian monastery, the first kind in Italy.The barony of the Cilento, which at the time of Robert d'Anjou was taxed to 54 ounces and 25 tarì, passed from Thomas Henry, died young. He was succeeded by Thomas and then Antonio and Tommaso. Succeeded in the barony, under the tutelage of Mother Frances Orsini, Luigi who married Catherine of Sanseverino, from which Thomas, the first son, which for the confiscation of King Ladislaus lost all fiefs.Angevin logs still reads concealment on the part of Cilento of 110 fires, whereby the collection of 300 fee,15 ounces and Tari.Volp reports the letter (April 4, 1364) of Archbishop Pietro of Naples to Thomas of Sanctomagno,

Bishop of Capaccio, about the assignment of fief made by Urban V (Avignon, 30August 1363) to Ruggìero Sanseverino. In 1414 the fief of Sanseverino lawyers were still tothe IRS. The Duchess of Sessa, Covella Ruffo, daughter of John Sanseverino, persuaded then Joan II, his cousin and intimate, to return goods to the Sanseverino (1434). After the death of Louis the Sanseverino assets passed to son Thomas who married Emilia Capece from which the only daughter Diana. Since Joan II with its special diploma had established that women of Sanseverino could not suggive in, King Alfonso of Aragon (diploma from Teano, 20 July 1436) gave the counties of Sanseverino and Marsico and the castles of Agropoli and Castellabate to Giovanni Sanseverino. But since the Tommaso faction of René d'Anjou, King Alfonso, with 1438 diploma awarded to Diana goods, then also rebellious, whereby the assets back to the IRS.

By order of 14 September 1439 King Alfonso declined the collette of the barony from 17 to12 ounces, the Cilento and its hamlets had to pay only 10 ounces and 14 tari and an ounce and 14 tarì Carlo Capano to the fiefs of Guarrazzano, Pollica and Styes. Giovanni Sanseverino, count of Marsico and Baron of Cilento, took place to the general Parliament in Naples (February 28, 1443). He was regent of the Principality. In 1444, infirm, he will tasks by checking the son Luigi, who had granted also Give and Castellabate, to pay the Bishop of Capaccio 12 ounces per year. Roberto gave the barony of Rocca, among other also ducati 20 to the Church of s. Francesco of Cilento.Of Cilento is still news in 1445, for order to require the Collette « Cilentum cum casalibus ». Agropoli, Castellabate and Felitto.Louis died without an heir, King Alfonso (December 22, 1450, diploma Tower 8) confirmed with Roberto and brothers counties of Marsico and of Sanseverino, the barony of the Cilento and the fiefs of Agropoli and Castellabate.

From King Ferrante, Roberto was then the Principality of Salerno (November 27, 1463 diploma from Terlizzi) grant the mere and mixed imperio in barony of the Cilento and «casali» of Acquavella, Guarrazzano, S. Giovanni, formerly owned by Carluccio Capano. Roberto Sanseverino was then appointed great Admiral. Robert (d. December 12, 1474) follow Antonello that only in 1477 he was appointed Grand Admiral. He took part in the conspiracy of barons, getting then by Prince Alfonso of exit from the Kingdom. He went to Rocca (John Castellani e Roberto di Costantino), then in Agropoli and from thence to Salerno. Obtained the consent of the King, in Sarno, he escaped taking refuge first in Rome and then in France to induceCharles VIII of France to come to Italy, which there came ne1 1494.

Meanwhile Alfonso II, happened to Fares, gave up the throne in favor of his son Ferdinand II (January 25, 1495) who escaped to Ischia. So Charles VIII entered in Naples on February 1, 1495. The May 17 re-integrated Antonello of all goods with a diploma issued by Gatta. Released Charles VIII the Kingdom (may 1495) returned King Ferdinand (7 July) who died in October the following year. Salts to the throne by his uncle Frederick. Antonello, collected as owned, fortified the castles of Salerno, Sala, Diano,La Rocca, Agropoli and Castellabate. He departed later for Senigallia, where he died on February 26, 1499 leaving heir Robert (II) year old son from Constanta in Urbino on May 1, 1486. In January 1504 he was captured and as a result France-Spain peace, Roberto was reintegrated in his fiefdoms (April 27, 1506 diploma). He married Mary of Aragona, daughter of Duke Alfonso of Villermosa, brother of the King Catholic.

Robert died two years later (1508) in Agropoli, leaving the son (born January 18, 1507) Ferdinand, name given to him in honor of his uncle King of Spain. As guardian of the minor mother assets heldMaria of Aragon. Ferdinando (Ferrante) as a child, married to the King Isabella Villamarina (October 17, 1516). In 1517 he invested his paternal heritage, to become the most powerful Baronof the Kingdom. It should be remembered that the May 8, 1535 Ferrante Sanseverino obtained from the King the privilege to judge offences committed by its vassals in all three baronies of the territory (Cilento, Castellabate and Agropoli). When the viceroy Pedro de Toledo, succeeded Cardinal Column, taken at Ferrante left Naples for France to invite Henry II to conquer the Kingdom. In 1552 he was condamned to death in Naples and his possessions removed.

The dissolution of baronies began.Under the rule of Ferdinand the castle of Rocca that in late ' 400 Florentine Juliano, master of fortresses, had strengthened, was rebuilt.It should be noted that the sale of the fiefs of the Barony, sometimeswas made to estimate a much of ducati to fire (see Camella). The castle of Rocca, in May 1, 1553, with the hamlets of Rutino, s. Maria dei Martiri e s. Lorenzo was sold to Michael GiovanniGomez. To this man (1566) was succeeded by his son Gaspar and then the son of this, Michele Giovanni who held the fief until 1577.

They and the Trojan son sold the fiefs Rocca and Rutino in g. Battista beard, who in 1608 sold Rocca with Rutino and other jurisdictions for 21,000 ducats. Estates, cottages and jurisdictions transferred then to Conforto is vital to 28,000 ducats. To Conforto was succeeded by his brother Bernardino, banished from the Kingdom for a crime with confiscation of property.

To his death was succeeded by his kinsman Michael Vitale who sold goods in 1661 to Angelo Garofalo who gave up (1667) in favour of Marco Gaddis, President of Summary Chamber, which the 11 June 1684 there was awarded the title of Marquis and the September 11, 1710 also Duke of Reach. He was succeeded by the son Justin (died 1749), Regent of the Supreme Council, which was succeeded by grandson Justin, from which his brother Marco Garofalo (Rocca, Rutino, Mercato and S. Maria dei Martiri) sold in 1742 Rocca to Paride Granito, Marquess of Castellabate.

Justino had obtained the title of Duke to Reach into thatDuke of Rutino with seniority of the first on the rock and with the title Marquis. By Andrea (d. February 26, 1777) Justin who obtained (February 28, 1780) some headers on Rocca (February 26, 1782). By this to Francesco (b. May 19, 1804) who was the legal recognition of two titles, which in its death (October 24, 1879) passed to his son Justin (birth. January 6, 1827, death. August 10, 1898) and his son Joseph (March 28, 1858). A descendant of Paride Granite, Gioacchìno, Prince of Belmonte and Marquess of Castellabate, then retained the title of Marquess of Rocca.

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